Background. The forced digitalization of everyday life poses tasks for psychology to study manifestations of the personal characteristics of the subject associated with interpersonal communication in the virtual reality environment. It is assumed that a high level of emotional intelligence, formed attachment to close people and a high level of the spatial ability development will contribute to the success of interaction with a digital avatar.
Objective. The study had its purpose to investigate the manifestations of emotional intelligence, spatial abilities and types of attachment to close people as factors determining success of interaction with a virtual avatar in the virtual reality environment, assessed through the relevance of the emotional-facial expression demonstrated by him.
Sample. The study involved 55 university students aged 18 to 25.
Methods. A battery of tests were used for diagnostics of the level of emotional intelligence development, spatial abilities, and types of attachment to close people. After that, the subjects participated in a quasi-experiment organized by means of the VR technology (CAVE system) to investigate the features of interaction with virtual avatars.
Results. The study allowed to reveal the features of behavior in virtual reality in the subjects with different levels of emotional intelligence, spatial abilities and type of attachment when interacting with virtual avatars. It is shown that effectiveness of solving a simulated communicative task in virtual reality depends on the level of development of a person’s spatial abilities.
Conclusions. It was revealed that insecure types of attachment correspond to lower levels of emotional intelligence, and the level of anxiety in close relationships determines the ability to manage emotions. There is a connection between the level of development of spatial abilities and the subject’s emotional intelligence.
Background. The growth of outstanding loans leads to dire consequences for both the state (due to shortfalls in profits) and for the individuals, causing health problems, severe depression and suicidal attempts. Debt relationships are both economic and psychological by their nature. As a psychological relationship, debt relations have not been considered so far, and therefore the purpose of this article is a psychological analysis of debt relations.
Objective of this article is a psychological analysis of the structure, types, levels and functions of debt relations.
Results. The article provides the author’s definition of debt relations as a type of psychological relationship that develops as a result of social interaction aimed at solving economic problems related to borrowing, lending and fulfilling debt obligations. The classification of debt relations based on their conative component is presented. Debt relations arising in the “person — person” and “person — organization” interaction are described. The author considers debt relations at different levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, inter- group and societal) and gives the analysis of their functions.
Conclusion. Subject-subject debt relations arise when lending or borrowing between participants, where each party has integrity, activity and independence. It means that in the case of subject-subject debt relations, in addition to assessing economic rationality, participants can express their value-semantic and affective assessment of the borrowing situation. In the case of subject-object debt relations, the object (credit organization) evaluates only the economic rationality of the deal. A theoretical model of debt relations with different types of interaction is given.
Background. Children exposed to prenatal exposure to ethanol are characterized by the presence of various behavioral and neurological disorders that have a negative impact on the processes of their socialization and development.
The objective of the research was to study the maladaptive behavior gender characteristic of primary school age children with prenatal alcohol exposure.
Sample. The study involved 77 children aged 7 to 10 years (57 boys, 20 girls) with previously identified physical developmental delay, characteristic dysmorphological, structural and functional disorders of the central nervous system that arose in connection with prenatal exposure to ethanol. The sample consisted of children from various educational institutions, social rehabilitation centers and centers for social assistance to families and children.
Methods. Diagnostics was carried out by means of semi-structured interviews using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. This scale includes a general section that describes examples of maladaptive behavior that can occur with low frequency in children with normal development, as well as an additional section including examples of behavior that are not observed in the children with normotypical development. Statistical data processing was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics-26.
Results. The study identified the features of maladaptive behavior common to both sexes: hyperactivity, impulsiveness, lying, cheating or stealing, having a poor eye contact. Indicators such as increased anxiety, nail biting habit, school avoidance and stubbornness were also detected with equally high frequency in both sexes. Apart from that, the data analysis established a number of gender-specific manifestations of maladaptive behavior: boys were statistically significantly more likely (p ≤ 0.05) to show having a hard time paying attention, disobedience, and temper tantrums. Girls were more likely to have eating disorders, overdependence on significant relatives.
Conclusion. The obtained results and the use of the Wineland scale can be applied in the work of the socio-psychological services of educational institutions in order to provide an appropriate preventive and corrective assistance. The presented study has limitations associated with the unevenness of the sample by gender, which requires additional confirmation in further studies.
gender characteristics; maladaptive behavior; children of primary school age; prenatal exposure to alcohol; behavioral disorders; adaptation; maladaptation
Background. Self-regulation of the volitional sphere is one of the important students’ abilities contributing to the effectiveness of their professional training. Designing practical technologies for the systematic improvement of such components of self-regulation as the individual’s volitional organization, flexibility, planning, as well as development of the volitional potential and its value-semantic organization, is in demand by the educational environment, since it contributes not only to improving academic performance, but also to personal and professional growth of students.
Objective. The study was aimed to determine the specifics of increasing the students’ volitional sphere self-regulation based on the results of a psychological and pedagogical formative experiment.
Sample. The sample consisted of 120 students of the Faculty of Psychology at the Russian State Social University (60 students in the experimental group and 60 students in the control group).
Methods. The study included diagnostic, statistical-mathematical and experimental (formative) stages. The study implemented three questionnaires: by T.V. Orlova — to determine the individual’s volitional potential; by V.I. Morosanova — to identify the style of self-regulation of behavior; by M.S. Gutkin, G.F. Mikhailchenko and A.V. Prudilo — to describe the features of the volitional organization of personality. The experimental group underwent the course of classes according to a specially designed program for increasing self-regulation of the volitional sphere (10 online meetings for 1.5 hours). Data processing included the K. Pearson correlation test, the Chaddock table, and the Mann–Whitney U-test.
Results. The study revealed the main features of the students’ volitional sphere self-regulation: above the average level of flexibility, planning and value-semantic organization of personality; the average level in terms of the volitional potential and organization, perse- verance, results evaluation, independence, general self-regulation; below average level of modeling, programming, determination, and composure.
A significant relationship has been established between the students’ flexibility, planning, value-semantic organization and academic performance, volitional organization, volitional potential, and self-regulation.
A comparative analysis of the results of the psychological and pedagogical formative experiment (significance level of differences: p < 0.05) showed that there were no significant changes in the control group of students, while in the experimental group an increase was fixed in the indicators of academic performance, volitional organization of personality, flexibility, organization of activities, self-control, and independence.
Conclusion. Attention is focused on the need for prophylaxis and correction of the students’ volitional sphere self-regulation by means of professional testing, special exercises and career-guidance games.
Background. The need to repeatedly change the type of professional activity, reducing the duration of professionalization stages often leads to the time sense disturbances, loss of the meaning of life, and a decrease in the coping strategies effectiveness. In this regard, investigating the role of personality resources, their mobilization and integration at different stages of professionalization remains a pressing issue.
Objective. The study had its purpose to identify the features of conscious self-regulation and hardiness at the different stages of professionalization. In the course of the work, the following hypothesis was tested: the type of a subject’s professional activity and the stage of professionalization affect the general level and the structure of links between the conscious self-regulation and his hardiness.
The sample consisted of 284 respondents (144 women and 140 men) aged 17 to 59 years.
Methods. The diagnostic complex included V.I. Morosanova’s “Self-regulation profile questionnaire, SRPQM-2020” and the “Test of hardiness” by D.A. Leontiev and E.I. Rasskazova. Collecting empirical data was carried out using blank testing and online testing by means of “Google Forms”. The results were processed using the calculation of descriptive statistics, the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, one-way and two-way analysis of variance, and the Mann-Whitney U-test.
Results. The data analysis has revealed that the highest values and density of correlations between the indicators of conscious self-regulation and hardiness are observed at the stage of professional adaptation. The relationship between subjects’ self-regulation and hardiness is more pronounced in the representatives of technical professions at the stages of their adaptation and professionalization. The study results can be used in the practice of occupational psychologists, personnel services, in the guidelines for developing hardiness, resilience, and regulatory resources of a person at the stage of professional adaptation.
Conclusions. It has been established that the sphere of professional activity (social-humanitarian or technical) has a greater influence on the indicators of resilience and self-regulation of the subject than the stage of his professional development.
subject of labor; hardiness; conscious self-regulation; stages of professional development; technical field of activity; social and humanitarian field of activity
Background. Currently there is a polymorphism of academic positions regarding the value-meaning sphere of personality. This issue requires a responsible resolution from the psychological community. Building up the system-analytical research on the topic is considered as the way out of this problematic situation.
Objective of the study is to systematically describe the key academic statements on personal values and meanings.
Methods. The study implemented a thinking method of “analysis through synthesis” (according to S.L. Rubinshtein and A.V. Brushlinsky). The author distinguished the most essential parts of the numerous works on values and meanings by Russian and foreign authors. The integration of these parts made it possible to holistically outline the main statements on the value-meaning sphere of personality.
Results. The research allowed to postulate the dominant priority of values and meanings in the personality orientation, to consider the specifics of their genesis, the nature of selectivity, structural characteristics, principles of functioning, and reorganization dynamics.
Conclusion. Theoretical generalizations based on heterogeneous research on the value-oriented and meaning aspects of personality from the perspective of individual and group specificity can significantly boost elimination of inconsistencies in explanations of the motivational-volitional components of personality orientation, and thus have a positive impact on the development of psychological science.
value-meaning sphere; value; value orientation; meaning; personality
Background. The search for resources of timely health recovery after operations still remains relevant in psychology. However, the issue of regulatory and intrapersonal resources for achieving psychological well-being in the postoperative period stays around unresolved.
Objective. The study had its purpose to investigate the contribution of conscious self-regulation and personality characteristics of patients to the achievement of normative health indicators and compliance with the terms of their health recovery after surgical interventions.
Sample. The sample consisted of 128 patients (75 men and 53 women) who underwent high-tech knee/hip joint surgery.
Methods. Questionnaire “Style of self-regulation of behavior — SSPM 2020”, “Scale of psychological well-being” by K. Riff, test questionnaire by Leonhard-Shmishek, questionnaire “Methods of coping behavior” by R. Lazarus, questionnaire for cognitive regulation of emotions (CERG), questionnaire “Secondary benefit from illness”, “Knee Score Scale”, “System hip joint assessments”.
Results. As a result of statistical analysis, two groups of patients were identified — “observing” and “not observing” recovery periods. It is shown for the first time that the patient’s ability to plan his actions to achieve the goal of recovery, his using the coping strategy “Problem Solving Planning” and psychological setting for personality growth, serve as the significant resources for recovery. Psychological well-being achieved by the time of surgery can also be considered as a resource. The analysis has revealed a high importance of its component “Environment management”. Patients who do not comply with the terms of recovery tend to overestimate their capabilities in the rehabilitation process, do not plan their actions to achieve the goal of health, prefer to follow standard instructions. Demonstrative and anxious character accentuations turned out to slow down the recovery process.
Conclusion. The data obtained can be used by psychologists and physicians in the rehabilitation programs, counseling and educational work. They can be also useful for the patients in order to increase their activity and life satisfaction during the period of independent recovery.
conscious self-regulation; personality properties; resources; recovery time
Background. The relevance of studying the world image of music professionals is provided by 1) the researchers’ interest to the creative professionals characterized by particular emotional sensitivity and artistic vision of the world; 2) a change in public perceptions of music professions; 3) the need to find adequate methods for a holistic description of the features of different professional activities.
Objectives of the study: a) revealing the psychosemantic structures of the world image in the professionals occupied in the music industry; b) reconstruction of the features of their professional activities; c) identifying the differences between the specialists of different profile within the musical sphere.
Sample. The study involved musicians — vocalists and instrumentalists of academic and pop profile (n = 42) and sound engineers and arrangers (n = 38). The control group consisted of professionals (n = 42) not related to music and playing no musical instruments. The total sample included 122 people.
Methods. 1) a questionnaire to collect demographic information about respondents; 2) 16-scale semantic differential “My work” (Abdullaeva, 2016); 3) the free association method for 12 stimulus words describing the communicative environment of the respondents.
Results. The study allowed for obtaining semantic profiles of the image of occupation in different profile specialists within the musical sphere. The data analysis has revealed different level representations of the world image in the respondents. Factor structures for groups of musicians and sound engineers describe a stable cluster consisting of interest, diversity, development potential, personal affinity, and creativity. The correlations of association’s categories (p ≤ 0.001) demonstrate the division of sound engineers and musicians according to publicity and technical equipment.
Conclusion. The obtained data on externally unobservable aspects of creative activity on the psychosemantic approach makes it possible to enrich ideas about the activities of specialists in the music sphere and outline the directions of their psychological support.
Obtaining data on externally unobservable aspects of creative activity made it possible to enrich ideas about the activities of music professionals and outline the directions for their psychological support. The practical use of the study results is associated with implementing the psychosemantic approach to the analysis of professional experience and identifying the main characteristics of the occupations in the music sphere.
image of the world; psychosemantics; semantic differential; associations; musicians; sound engineers
Background. The life of a creative person, his activity takes place in close relationship with the world, in certain social, cultural and historical circumstances. Creative activity requires cooperation between creative people, certain conditions. At the same time, in psychological science creative personality is oft en considered outside of a social, cultural and historical context. Modern world needs creative people, yet the attitudes towards creative people are still complicated and controversial.
Objective. Theoretical analysis of the peculiarities of the creative person’s relationship with society.
Design. Theoretical analysis of psychological literature focused on the formation of a creative personality, his relationship with society and psychological biographies of creative people.
Results. The mastery of a system of knowledge in the relevant field is an indispensable condition for creative activity, for creation of a socially signifi cant product. At the stage of maturation, the creative person feels the need for a developing environment and is very active in finding these opportunities. The relationship between creative people and society remains difficult in many cultures and countries of the modern world. Educational practices in many countries do not contribute to the development of a creative person. Psychological features of creative person (activity, courage, autonomy, individuality) are perceived as a threat in a socio-cultural context focused on stability, predictability and hierarchy.
Conclusion. Creative personality is active in his relationship with the world, both at the stage of its formation and in the process of its activity. The creative person oft en finds himself in the conflict with society and at the same time is responsive to its needs. The life decisions of a creative person are largely determined by the need to realize his creative potential
Background. Sociocultural threats caused by the emergence of social confl icts, ambivalent ideas about passionarity and activity of people in the construction of the surrounding world, a pronounced state of uncertainty in understanding the goals and directions of society development, actualize the task of ensuring information and psychological safety of young people. The solution to this problem is possible through the formation of skills for safe information behavior and interaction in the digital environment, supposing development of information-psychological stability.
Objective. The purpose of the study was to develop and verify a psychological educational program for the formation of information and psychological resistance of the university students to socio-cultural threats based on the development of leveling personality resources.
Design. The psychological and pedagogical experiment was conducted on the basis of Russian State Social University and Shuya Branch of Ivanovo State University in the 2021/2022 academic year. The methodological basis was made up of cultural-historical, subject-activity and risk-resource approaches. The program included four stages: formation of motivation and knowledge, formation of informational behavior, formation of critical thinking, formation of a prosocial orientation (within the framework of academic disciplines of psychological profile and extracurricular work).
Methods. 103 students took part in the study (16% men, 84% women, aged 17 to 20 years). The following methods were used in the study: “Scale of subjective well-being” (Perrudel-Badoux, Mendelsohn, Chiche, Russian adaptation by M.V. Sokolova), “Definition of socio-cultural identity” (O.V. Krupenko, O.V. Frolova), “Moral grounds questionnaire” (J. Haidt et al., Russian adaptation by O.A. Sychev et al.), “Index of self-assessment of information skills” (Y.L. Voynilov, D.V. Maltseva, L.V. Shubina), “Scale of virtual autism” (E.N. Gilemkhanova).
Results. According to the results of control measurements carried out before and aft er the psychological and pedagogical experiment, students who passed 4 stages of the developed Program demonstrated a statistically signifi cant positive change in the indicators of information- psychological resistance to socio-cultural threats (Student’s t-criterion, p < 0.001).
Conclusion. The study shows that development of leveling personality resources, and through them — the development of value-motivational, emotional-volitional, cognitive, interpersonal spheres contributes to the formation of a student’s Self-concept resistant to sociocultural threats through developing of agency and constructing psychologically safe informational behavior.
Practical use of the results. The psychological educational program developed for the study purposes can be useful in practical work of psychologists and teachers with young people in the system of psychological support and educational work at the university
information-psychological stability; socio-cultural threats; students